How to grow olive?
How To Grow Olive Tree
Olive trees produce more in one year and less in the following year. This phenomenon, called "periodicity", is known by the producers as "the year of existence - year of absence".
It is to some extent the genetic feature of the olive tree. However, the way the olives are harvested also increases the severity of periodicity. Especially, making the harvest by flapping or damaging the branches in similar ways increases the periodicity by negatively affecting the next year's product.
If olive growers attach enough importance to cultural practices during production, the effect of periodicity should be expected to decrease.
Climate Requirements of Olive Tree
It is the most important factor limiting the spread of olives.
The olive tree depends on the severity and duration of the cold at temperatures below -7 ° C, development status, age, etc. of the tree. can be damaged according to the circumstances.
In olive-growing regions, the average annual temperature is required to be between 15 ° - 20 ° C.
When the maximum temperature rises to 40 ° C, it can withstand this temperature through irrigation.
When the olive tree is exposed to temperatures lower than –7 ° C, it dries completely depending on the severity of the cold.
Since the sweating on the leaves will increase with the temperature increase above normal in May - June, piles are seen on the leaves.
In the winter months, olive trees wake up early with the early warming of the weather, and the trees are damaged when the weather gets cold again.
Due to the temperature difference between day and night in olive groves in inclined areas facing north, damages may occur on the shoots.
Temperature demands of olive trees in various vegetation stages;
1. The period until the formation after the first shoots appear (February - March) 5 ° -10 ° C,
2. Flowering period (May-June) 15 ° - 20 ° C,
3.Fruit formation and growth phase (May-June) 20 ° - 25 ° C,
4. The period from full maturity to the end of harvest (November - January) 5 ° C
Although it is said that olives are resistant to drought, annual rainfall demand is 600-800 mm.
In the regions where olive cultivation is made, the rainfall in the winter and spring months is stored by the soil. Thus it meets the water needs of the olive trees, increases the flowering, fruit set rate, and reduces the June breakdown.
In order for the olive fruit to be larger and of higher quality, water is needed for the development of the seed hardening in the summer months. In this period, the water need that cannot be met by rainfall is met by irrigation.
Other types of precipitation, namely hail and snow, are undesirable precipitation for olive cultivation.
In addition, it is undesirable to have foggy weather during the blooming period as it prevents dusting.
Negative effects of rainfall above normal:
· There is no version temper,
· Harvest is difficult,
· It causes nitrogenous fertilizers to be washed away,
· It causes erosion in inclined olive groves,
· Reduces resistance to cold by encouraging olive trees to shoot more than normal,
· It causes rotting of the roots by increasing the ground water,
· It prevents the soil from aeration,
· It lowers the pH of the soil.
The northwest wind blowing in winter is beneficial to olives as it brings fertility to the fertilization by bringing plenty of rain.
The humid winds blowing in the summer months are beneficial for the olives as they prevent the trees from getting thirsty.
In summer, dry winds blowing from the south reduce the soil moisture, and if it blows continuously, the grains become thirsty.
In the regions with open south, olives are affected more by the cold, as the southwest, which blows in winter, awakens the trees untimely.
Soil Requirements of the Olive Tree
Olive tree is not very selective in terms of soil requirements compared to other fruit trees.
In order for the olive tree to develop well and produce olive at the optimum level;
1. Soil Type: loamy, clayey - loamy
2. pH: 6 - 8
3. Salinity: 0- 4mchos / cm
4. Lime (%): 5 - 15
5. Organic matter (%): 2 - 3
6. Phosphorus (ppm): 7- 20
7. Potassium (ppm): 200 - 320
8. Calcium (ppm): 1440 - 6120
9. Magnesium (ppm): 117 – 400
The soil structure of the areas where olives will be planted should be neither heavy nor light. It is desired that the soil depth should be such as to allow the development of the root structure of the olive tree.
In places where the ground water is closer than 1 m, drainage work should be done before the olive grove is established.
The practical purposes of tillage are:
To puff up the soil,
Increasing the water holding capacity,
To supply the required air,
To create a homogeneous structure,
In order for the winter rains at the end of the harvest to penetrate the soil better, the rows can be processed at a depth of 20-25 cm with a 5-socket plow. Heavy soils should be treated deeper than sandy soils.
In the spring, superficial plowing is done with tools such as crowbar, disc harrow, combined rake. Tillage in this period should have been completed a few weeks before the beginning of flower setting.
Tillage should be done perpendicular to the slope in order to prevent soil erosion and provide water retention in sloping lands.
Tillage should be done once, twice or at most three times a year.
The first tillage is plowed at a depth that will not damage the roots after the harvest at the beginning of winter, the soil compressed by pressing during the harvest is loosened, and the soil is made ready for winter rainfall.
The second tillage is done 3-4 weeks before flowering, the soil is softened and the weeds are killed.
This tillage is not done deep.
The last tillage is done in September before harvest. The purpose of this soil cultivation; to make the harvest easier.
It is recommended:
4 × 6 m - 5 × 5 m in small canopy varieties
5 × 7 m - 6 × 6 m in varieties that produce medium-sized canopy.
6 × 8 m - 7 × 7 m in varieties with large canopy.
Square, rectangular, triangular and contr (according to leveling curves) planting is done in olive groves. These planting varieties are determined according to the condition of the land.
Square Planting is applied in areas with right angles and small areas. Row spacing and row distances are equal.
Rectangular Planting is kept narrow and wide between the rows. Care should be taken that the rows are in the north-south direction.
Triangle Planting is applied in wide and slightly inclined areas. Rows of trees should be on the opposite side of the slope.